Search for Author, Title, Keyword
Tests of hail simulation and research of the resulting impact on the structural reliability of solar cells
More details
Hide details
Department of Mechanical and Material Engineering Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Vilnius Gediminas Technical University Basanavičiaus str. 28, LT -03224 Vilnius, Lithuania
Department of Automobile Engineering Faculty of Transport Engineering Vilnius Gediminas Technical University Basanavičiaus str. 28, LT -03224 Vilnius, Lithuania
Institute of Mechanical Science Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Vilnius Gediminas Technical University Basanavičiaus str. 28, LT -03224 Vilnius, Lithuania
Publication date: 2019-06-30
Eksploatacja i Niezawodność – Maintenance and Reliability 2019;21(2):275–281
The mandatory tests of resistance to hail is carried out in order to qualify solar cell modules according to standards (IEC 61215 and IEC 61646). The efficiency of modern photovoltaic systems decreases significantly, when the crystalline structure of solar cells is damaged as a result of climatic factors, such as wind, hail, etc., which are similar to mechanical-dynamic effects. This work presents a conducted research of efficiency and reliability of solar cells, simulating hail effects. A testbed was created specifically for carrying out experimental research. During the research, solar elements were exposed to impact, cyclic dynamic loads, with the frequency of revolutions of the balls simulating hail ranging from 5 to 20 Hz, the amplitude of the impact excitation acceleration of the solar cell - up to 986 m / s2 and the force amplitude - up to 1129 N. Experimental research results revealed the reliability of photovoltaic modules of different sizes during the simulation of hail. The proposed assessment methodology of hail effects can be successfully applied in studies of the influence of mechanical-dynamic effects of solar cells of different structures.
Anders C, Urbassek H M. Solar wind ion impacts into ice surfaces: A molecular-dynamics study using the REAX force field. Icarus 2017; 282: 351–362,
Atkinson C, Sansom C L, Almond H J, Shaw C P. Coatings for concentrating solar systems – A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2015; 45: 113–122,
Du B, Yang R, He Y, Wang F, Huang S. Nondestructive inspection, testing and evaluation for Si-based, thin film and multi-junction solar cells: An overview. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2017; 78: 1117–1151,
El Mghouchi Y, Chham E, Krikiz M S, Ajzoul T, El Bouardi A. On the prediction of the daily global solar radiation intensity on southfacing plane surfaces inclined at varying angles. Energy Conversion and Management 2016; 120: 397–411, enconman.2016.05.005.
Guo B, Javed W, Pett C, Wu C-Y, Scheffe J R. Electrodynamic dust shield performance under simulated operating conditions for solar energy applications. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2018; 185: 80–85,
Gunduz H, Jayaweera D. Reliability assessment of a power system with cyber-physical interactive operation of photovoltaic systems. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 2018; 101: 371–384,
Hills J M, Michalena E. Renewable energy pioneers are threatened by EU policy reform. Renewable Energy 2017; 108: 26–36,
Kilikevičius A, Čereška A, Kilikevičienė K. Analysis of external dynamic loads influence to photovoltaic module structural performance. Engineering Failure Analysis 2016; 66: 445–454,
Kulesza G, Panek P, Zięba P. Time efficient texturization of multicrystalline silicon in the HF/HNO3 solutions and its effect on optoelectronic parameters of solar cells. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering 2014; 14(4): 595–601,
Martins A C, Chapuis V, Virtuani A, Li H-Y, Perret-Aebi L-E, Ballif C. Thermo-mechanical stability of lightweight glass-free photovoltaic modules based on a composite substrate. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2018; 187: 82–90,
Picotti G, Borghesani P, Cholette M E, Manzolini G. Soiling of solar collectors – Modelling approaches for airborne dust and its interactions with surfaces. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2018; 81: 2343–2357,
Polimeno M R, Roselli I, Luprano V A M, Mongelli M, Tatì A, De Canio G. A non-destructive testing methodology for damage assessment of reinforced concrete buildings after seismic events. Engineering Structures 2018; 163: 122–136, engstruct.2018.02.053.
Popoola I K, Gondal M A, Qahtan T F. Recent progress in flexible perovskite solar cells: Materials, mechanical tolerance and stability.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2018; 82: 3127–3151,
Punge H J, Kunz M. Hail observations and hailstorm characteristics in Europe: A review. Atmospheric Research 2016; 176–177: 159–184,
Reshma Gopi R, Sreejith S. Converter topologies in photovoltaic applications – A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2018; 94: 1–14,
Smyth M, Pugsley A, Hanna G, Zacharopoulos A, Mondol J, Besheer A, et al. Experimental performance characterisation of a Hybrid Photovoltaic/Solar Thermal Façade module compared to a flat Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater module. Renewable Energy [Internet]. 2018 Apr [cited 2018 Oct 26]; Available from:
Sun L, Gu X H, Song P, Di Y. A generalized equivalent temperature model in a time-varying environment. Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc - Maintenance and Reliability 2017, 19 (3): 432–440,
Stratakis E, Kymakis E. Nanoparticle-based plasmonic organic photovoltaic devices. Materials Today 2013; 16(4): 133–146,
Teotia M, Soni R K. Applications of finite element modelling in failure analysis of laminated glass composites: A review. Engineering Failure Analysis 2018; 94: 412–437,
Višniakov N, Kilikevičius A, Novickij J, Grainys A, Novickij V. Low-cost experimental facility for evaluation of the effect of dynamic mechanical loads on photovoltaic modules. Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc - Maintenance and Reliability 2015; 17(3): 334–337,
Zhang C, Wu J, Long C, Cheng M. Review of Existing Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading Projects. Energy Procedia 2017; 105: 2563–2568,
Setiyo M, Soeparman S, Wahyudi S, Hamidi N. The Alternative Way to Drive the Automobile Air-Conditioning, Improve Performance, and Mitigate the High Temperature: A Literature Overview. Periodica PolytechnicaTransportation Engineering 2018; 46(1): 36-41,
Trzmiel G. Determination of a mathematical model of the thin-film photovoltaic panel (CIS) based on measurement data. Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc - Maintenance and Reliability 2017; 19 (4): 516–521,
Smolinski M., Perkowski T.,Mystkowski A., Dragašius E., Eidukynas D., Jastrzebski R P. AMB flywheel integration with photovoltaic system for household purpose – modelling and analysis. Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc - Maintenance and Reliability 2017; 19 (1): 86–94,
Comparison between two calculation methods for designing a stand-alone PV system according to Mosul city basemap
Rasha Mohammed, Safwan Hamoodi, Ali Hamoodi
Open Engineering
The Impact of Power Source Performance Decrease in a PV/WT/FC Hybrid Power Generation System on the Result of a Multi-Criteria Analysis of Load Distribution
Ceran, Orłowska
Research of the Energy Losses of Photovoltaic (PV) Modules after Hail Simulation Using a Newly-Created Testbed
Kilikevičienė, Matijošius, Kilikevičius, Jurevičius, Makarskas, Caban, Marczuk
Force and Sound Pressure Sensors Used for Modeling the Impact of the Firearm with a Suppressor
Jaroslaw Selech, Artūras Kilikevičius, Kristina Kilikevičienė, Sergejus Borodinas, Jonas Matijošius, Darius Vainorius, Jacek Marcinkiewicz, Zaneta Staszak
Applied Sciences
Dinaminėmis apkrovomis veikiamų kristalinio silicio modulių tyrimai
Vytautas Makarskas
Investigation of the influence of hail mechanical impact parameters on photovoltaic modules
Vytautas Makarskas, Mindaugas Jurevičius, Janis Zakis, Artūras Kilikevičius, Sergejus Borodinas, Jonas Matijošius, Kristina Kilikevičienė
Engineering Failure Analysis
Analysis of the hail impacts on the performance of commercially available photovoltaic modules of varying front glass thickness
Suprava Chakraborty, Avinash Haldkar, Kumar Manoj
Renewable Energy